The Efficient Market Hypothesis has been under fire since Eugene Fame of the University Of Chicago Graduate School Of Business first suggested it back in the early 1960s. The central idea behind the Efficient Market Hypothesis is the theory that investors are completely rational in interpreting and acting on market news and information (which, ostensibly, is fully revealed public knowledge).It has since come to be known as the Theory of Rational Expectations. This rational investor behavior is factored into the value of all news and information the moment it becomes available. And it happens to the extent that “beating the market” becomes an impossible task.The idea of investor rationality has been under fire by the few “gurus” who have consistently beaten the market since its inception. Nobel Laureate and father of Behavioral Finance, Daniel Kahneman, pointed out that the failure of the rational model is not inherent in the logic of the theory, but rather in the human psyche. He posited that nobody has the ability to simultaneously process all incoming stimuli and attain a complete understanding and mastery of that stimuli.From the many arguments for and against the theory of rational expectations, I observed that many of the arguments stemmed from a difference in the understanding of what rationality means in the first place (indeed, that is further proof that “rational” people can look at ideas and apply their own bias and still be regarded as “rational”). If the world is made up of blistering imbeciles making irrational decisions, like those who argued against the theory suggest, wouldn’t the world more closely resemble an assembly of monkeys? Yet, if the world is made up of rational humans the way the theory postulates, wouldn’t the world be more robotic than human?For too long, academia has debated the theory by taking sides with either the monkeys or the robots without a clear understanding of what constitutes rationality in the first place. Is the investor who rushes blindly into the stock market during market bubbles irrational? Are investors rational beings if they buy undervalued and sell overvalued stocks? Essentially, all reasonable human beings are rational! Rationality is the consistency of action based upon a set of logical variables. The issue here is that the difference in one’s level of knowledge and life experiences is the determining factor that allows for the installation of a distinct set of logical parameters and values in every human being!This means that two human beings looking at and interpreting the same information can come to two separate conclusions and resulting actions! The result of which is a two-sided market. An investor who has lost a significant amount of money in the stock market may prefer to stay out of an overextended stock regardless of how fantastic the news. On the other hand, investors who have never been through that same life experience would simply continue to buy on the news. Both investors, in this case, are rational in regard to their own level of knowledge and experience. This explanation of rationality effectively consolidates all the differing views on the Theory of Rational Expectation. Because investors are rational, two-sided markets are created, making the overall market more and more efficient. Because investors are rational, they rush after price bubbles on the expectation of profits only to be defeated by the Law of Regression to the Mean.Being greedy is a rational response to one’s needs and wants and being fearful is a rational response to one’s past sufferings. The driving factors of Greed and Fear are also rational expressions! Contrarians who take positions against the market are rationally expressing their expectations that markets eventually turn against the prevailing trend. Trend followers who take positions along with market trends are rationally expressing their belief in that trend continuing into the foreseeable future. Both create a two-sided market for each other, driving the overall market towards more and more efficiency.However, this explanation of rationality completely nullifies the part in the theory that states that “rational investors should act in a similar fashion in response to the same news”. Because there is no way of measuring or predicting whether or not there will be more decisions of rational buying or rational selling in response to new information, nobody can predict market movement with any moral certainty. Although not attributed to random behavior, the unpredictable nature of the market has more cause and effects than the theory itself can explain.In summation, any argument to explain market behavior through the notion of rationality has limited application in reality. As investors in the stock markets, our understanding that the markets cannot be predicted and the set-up of realistic stop loss points in preparation for worst-case outcomes and hedging portfolios using stock options, are the most rational actions that can be taken. As behavioral finance suggests, everyone makes the best of a bad situation and the situation in the stock market has never been ideal for anyone.
Finance Series – Exploring Investor Rationality
The Best Ways of Advertising on the Internet
Something which is still in its infancy in the grand scheme of things, advertising on the internet has been and will continue to be a growth sector in the advertising industry as consumers spend an increasing amount of their time online. The web is already one of the world’s largest marketplaces and as any advertising or marketing professional can tell you, the way to reach consumers is to go to them. And that place is ever more likely to be the internet, making bringing advertising to the internet an essential to any business which hopes to remain competitive.Not only consumers but businesses have moved much of their commercial activity to the online world, making this also a new area of growth for business to business marketing as well as business to consumer advertising. While advertising on the internet is still an emerging part of the marketing world, there are already a variety of means which advertisers can employ in their efforts to make headway with online consumers.Advertising banners and text ads are the most well established form of advertising on the internet, with PPC, PPA and other forms of contextual advertising becoming a growing part of web based marketing efforts. The cost of advertising to the advertiser can be determined in several different ways, depending on the pricing model used. There is the pay per click (PPC) model, which relies on gathering a large number of tricks to be useful to the advertiser and profitable for the seller of online ad space. Other advertising sellers prefer the CPM model, which involves a flat fee per 1,000 impressions ‘ something which works well for companies who have high levels of traffic selling advertising on the internet.There is also the CPA or cost per action model; these actions could be clicks, impressions or anything else determined by the advertiser and the advertising seller. However, the most common action in this model is something which helps the advertiser to build their list such as an email-based subscription.Adverts used in internet marketing campaigns involving newsletters, a popular choice in the field of B2B advertising on the internet are often priced this way. CPA advertising tends to be more expensive for the advertiser, but it does yield much more certain results ‘ and in the case of B2B advertising, the return on investment tends to be higher. Newsletters are a favored method for business to business campaigns because of the repeated contacts generally needed to close a sale and because for these sorts of applications, banner and text ads tend to be far less effective.When using banner ads, the placement and design must be taken into account by both parties; different ads will benefit from different placement on the page; website owners selling advertising on the internet should have the behavior of their visitors analyzed to determine favorable placements. This helps the publisher do a better job of selling advertising, as well as making the decision an easier one for the advertiser.There is always the option of pop-up ads to give advertisers increased visibility. At one time, this was a near-guarantee of an impression, but these are becoming less popular with the increasing sophistication of pop-up blockers. Advertisers and sellers of advertising on the internet have a lot of choices and as web technology grows, the opportunities for advertising on the internet are sure to grow alongside of it.
Financing Home Improvement Expenses
You have home improvement plans but you just cannot seem to find the right budget scheme to be able to finance a few works around the house. This scenario is not rare as more and more people have to put up their homes for sale due to the recent economic crisis. Some others just want to move out and need their houses to be put up for a price. To be able for the house to become more valuable, renovations and improvement are both musts to raise the home selling price. Or simply, you have grown tired of the same color of wall for the longest time, a good repaint job can make it all the better or the patio needs some repair and improvement of facilities.The reality of people setting up their homes up for sale is no longer out of the ordinary for most people. The real estate sector health has not been that good to since the recession a few years back. Houses for sale was either too cheap or too expensive for most home buyers. And the greatest factor to close a sale of residence is the condition of the house itself. Getting the house in up and running condition with a few interior improvements can greatly improve its tag price or simply just get a new look for its home dwellers. But to get the money in order to be able to do so can be done without too much hassle or too many red tags to comply. Below are some of the financing efforts you can give your home.Create some funds for home improvement. You might have a place, say an attic, where you can put up old items for a garage sale. You can rally up the family members to get creative in disposing the stock items around the house. Old clothes, furniture, books, furniture and many other stored stuffs can fetch handsome prices. Pooling money and cleaning up unused objects can be quite rewarding. Or at times, due to home improvement, some auxiliary properties like a boat or another car can be sold in order to have considerable amount of money.Store credit card can also be an answer for financing your minor home improvement projects ranging from $1,000-$10,000. Membership requires no credit background check as long as you keep in mind they happen to also have higher credit rates and service fees. While picking out the credit card, watch out for the hidden charges and keep notes of your account summary.Home equity can be tricky as it has many financial obligations but can create more amount of money for your home renovations or improvement. It is also recommended to check your local bank home loans as they are easier to manage and keep track. Home loan rates are quite higher in interest rate compared to mortgages as they have little time for pay outs. Do not be afraid to ask the loan officer about your loans as this would help you in making the final decision.Finding the financial capacity to afford your home improvement does not mean you have to break the bank. The best way to get around with it is to stick with a certain budget and approach the improvement with a part by part section. Your home can be more pleasing in time without you having to face additional debts and obligations.